Energy efficiency and consumption in EU domestic sector
The EU Energy Services Directive (ESD) and its implications to the domestic sector
The EU Energy Services Directive (ESD) set an indicative target for the MemberStates to achieve a 1% per annum energy-efficiency improvement, resulting in a cumulative target of a 9% improvement in energy efficiency by 2016. The ESD is an overarching directive that seeks to promote cost-effective energy efficiency in the EU member states through various promotional, awareness and support measures and through the removal of institutional, financial and legal barriers. Unlike the 2020 energy-efficiency target, the ESD target excludes energy used by enterprises involved in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) and also international aviation.
To give fresh momentum to energy efficiency, on 8 March 2011 the EU Commission put forward a new Energy Efficiency Plan (EEP) setting out measures to achieve further savings in energy supply and use. An associated Directive was proposed in 2011 which would supersede the ESD and transform certain aspects of the EEP into binding measures. The finalised Directive on Energy Efficiency, published in October 2012, reaffirmed and strengthened the provisions of the ESD and seeks to set a common framework to promote energy efficiency in the Union beyond 2020.
The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) is a cross-sectoral measure encompassing energy efficiency in the built environment as a whole. This directive included a common methodology for calculating the integrated energy performance of buildings; minimum standards on the energy performance of new buildings and existing buildings that are subject to major renovation; systems for the energy certification of new and existing buildings, and for public buildings; and regular inspection of boilers and air-conditioning systems in buildings.
As part of the EPBD, a Building Energy Rating (BER) certificate, which is effectively an energy label for buildings, has been at the point of sale or rental of a building, or on completion of a new building since 2008. Since January 2009 this labelling system applies to existingbuildings as well as new domestic and non-domestic buildings in Europe. Member States are also required by the EPBD to review their mandatory energy performance requirements for buildings at least every 5 years.
The EPBD was superseded by the Recast EPBD (Directive 2010/31/EU) in 2010. European Union (Energy Performance of Buildings) Regulations 2012 includes a requirement for Member States to move to “near zero-energy buildings” (NZEB) by 2020.
Renewable energy requirements for new domestic dwellings
Since July 2008, all new domestic buildings are also required to have the following contribution from renewable energy:
- 10 kWh/m2/annum contributing to energy use for domestic hot water heating, space heating or cooling; or
- 4 kWh/m2/annum of electrical energy; or
- a combination of these which would have the equivalent effect.
The implications for building and householders of the EU directives
The introduction of the “BRE” certificates in the built environment which includes the residential sector has had a profound effect on the sale value of domestic dwellings, which now must have a “BRE” certificate before the sale can take place. I poor energy efficiency rating could devalue a building or home by as high as 30%.
As well as the Building Energy Rating (BER) certificate, The EU directive on product energy efficiency labelling of appliances (Directive 2003/66/EC) is one of many product directives as shown below.
- Energy Labelling of Domestic Appliances Directive (2003/66/EC) – to ensure the provision of consistent, detailed information to consumers on the energy use of domestic appliances
- Eco-design of Energy-Using Products Directive (2009/125/EC) – to set minimum energy performance standards for a broad range of energy usage and related technologies;
- Directive 2010/30/EU on the indication, by labelling and standard product information, of the consumption of energy and other resources by energy-related products.
Where energy savings can be made in a domestic dwelling
In domestic dwelling energy in the form of electricity is used for lighting, heating, for running appliances, such as refrigerators, deep freezers, hot water heaters, electric showers, cooking, and air conditioning. Using modern equipment with good controls can typical save in electricity usage by as much 40%.
Thermal energy usage such as Oil, Gas, Coal
Thermal energy is typically used for space heat via a hot water boiler, water heating and cooking. Using more efficientsystems and improving dwelling heat losses through artic spaces, external walls, floor modern double and treble-glazingdoors and windows. These improvements can reduce energy bills by as much as 50% and provide much improved thermal comforts, through increase room temperature and the elimination of draughts.
Maximpact can help you maintain and increase your property value while reducing your annual energy bills by offering you the following services:
Comprehensive energy audits
This energy audit will include the building fabric insulation levels and potential improvements, heating and cooling systems efficiency, lighting systems improvement potential and assessment of all domestic appliances and potential savings using more efficient appliances. The report will also provide youwith an estimate of your savings in electricity, and fuel for each recommendation that we make.
You will be providedwith a detailed report gap analysis that will show your present “BRE” building energy rating and a prediction of your “BRE” building energy rating should you undertake the improvements we recommend in our energy audit report.
Thermal imaging study
Conduct a thermal imaging study of the building to detect building heat losses associated with poor insulation or building defects.
- A feasibility study of the installation of solar water heating for domestic hot water usage.
- A feasibility study of installation of Solar PV systems to displace grid electricity.
- A feasibility study of installation of an air or ground source heat pump to supply hot water for space heat and domestic hot water.
- A feasibility study of installing a small scale gas-firedco-generation unit to supply electricity and hot water. These are suitable for design for large dwelling and apartment block in the range of 5.5 kW electrical output with 11 kW thermal outputs.